Alopecia, or hair loss, is the loss of hair both on the head and in other parts of the body (eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, core, limbs). It can be temporary or permanent, and total or partial. The causes of its occurrence depend on the type of Alopecia, and are the following: Genetic Factors – Heredity, Hormonal disorders, Autoimmune diseases, Infections, Anemia, Stress, and anxiety.
Depending on the clinical appearance, the different types of Alopecia can be categorized as follows:
It is commonly known as “baldness”. It has hereditary predisposition and applies to both males and females. Androgenic alopecia occurs in females under 40 years old, and most of them develop it during menopause. Females lose their hair, with emphasis on the top of the head. Males, on the other hand, develop hair loss after the age of 20, and gradually lose hair on the forehead, the temples (sides), and the top of the head.
It is often referred to as “localized baldness”. It is a sudden hair loss locally on the head or the rest of the body. In some cases, it can cause total hair loss, which is called alopecia totalis, where a person can even lose their eyebrows and eyelashes. It has hereditary predisposition and mostly affects persons with autoimmune diseases.
It is a temporary thinning and decrease in hair density. It affects the scalp. It is due to factors that cause severe physical or mental stress, such as iron deficiency, endocrine disorders, dietary disorders, and pregnancy, or it can be associated with taking medication, such as contraceptive or thyroid pills, as well as chemotherapy-radiotherapy. Thinning is usually temporary and affects both males and females.
It is permanent hair loss due to a disease that caused damage to the hair follicle and the development of a scar. Some of the diseases that can cause Cicatricial Alopecia are certain types of lupus erythematosus, smooth lichen, ichthyosis, sarcoidosis, and also cellulite, folliculitis, acne, and dermatophytes. In this case, it is primary, i.e. due to internal causes. It can also be secondary, i.e. due to external causes, such as an injury.
The treatment of Alopecia depends on its type. Diagnosis is first made clinically, and laboratory examinations (blood test) may also be needed, as well as a trichogram, trichoscopy, and sometimes, a skin biopsy. Depending on the type of alopecia, drugs, local solutions, and vitamins are administered, and treatments are applied (intralegional injections, mesotherapy, etc.).
The restoration of thinning can also be treated with hair transplantation, depending on the case.
It is important that, simultaneously with the treatment, the mental aspect is also addressed.