Melasma occurs on the hands, face (forehead, cheeks, lips, chin) and the upper part of the chest, and results from the overproduction and deposit of a pigment, melanin, which exists naturally on the skin of all people, in the epidermis. There is not an increased number of cells producing melanin, but rather a number of cells that overproduce melanin granules, changing the color of the skin.
There is flat melasma with a light brown, yellow, gray, or red color, which disappears by reducing exposure to the sun. This melasma is more frequent in people with fair complexions, although it also occurs in various skin complexions. It is usually darker in the summer. Its occurrence is relatively rare in males.
Freckles are also fair skin discolorations, which can have a light brown, brown, or black color, and which usually disappear in the winter.
The regular use of sunscreen can prevent their growth and burden. To a great extent, the prevention of solar exposure is the best preventive measure against melasma. In cases where exposure to the sun can be prevented, the application of a high SPF sunscreen should be followed.
Upon medical examination by a Dermatologist, and evaluation of the lesion type and depth, a recommended treatment is indicated.
There are many topical treatments that can be used to treat melasma. At a first stage, they are treated topically, by focusing on melanin composition sources (depigmenting substances), protection from solar radiation with strong sunscreen products, and spread ointments for cosmetic purposes.
If the melasma is deeper, chemical peelings and/or the use of laser are selected, which are applied by a specialist dermatologist to hypopigmentations, in order to prevent the occurrence of any complications. In cases of melasma, the skin is extremely sensitive, and great attention is required for the selection of a treatment and to prevent the problem from getting worse.