Benign lesions

Cysts, lipomas, papillomas, hyperkeratoses, condylomas


A skin cyst, or epidermoid cyst, is a benign skin tumor that often develops on the face, ears, nape, neck, core, and genitals; in fact, however, there is no part of the body where no cysts have developed. They grow slowly and are usually painless, although many patients choose to remove them, either for cosmetic reasons, or because they are functionally annoying where they are are. It develops as a small tumor, a bulge under the skin, and possibly has a central black spot. Normally, this is a point of contact with the area outside of the skin, from where, germs can enter into the cyst, causing inflammation. In this case, the cyst is painful and red, and the area is hot. When the cells from the surface layer of the skin, i.e. the epidermis, enter a little deeper into the skin, they proliferate, create the cyst wall, and start producing keratin. In other cases, cysts develop from the sebaceous gland of a hair follicle, the secretive duct of which has been blocked, which brings the sebum to the skin surface.


The cyst is removed surgically. It is important to remove its entire wall, otherwise it is possible to relapse. You should be careful not to press the cyst to break, because this often happens inwards, resulting in the expansion and aggravation of the inflammation.


Seborrheic keratosis is a benign skin lesion (non-cancerous), which is etiologically related to hereditary predisposition. It is characterized by a thickening of the most superficial part of the epidermis, which is called keratin layer. At this level, the cells are highly loaded with keratin, which is a protein that gives them a dry and very hard look. In some cases, there is abnormal keratin accumulation, which results in the development of plaques from dry skin and covered by crusts. Seborrheic hyperkeratoses are not transmitted from person to person, and are asymptomatic lesions. Occasionally, after an injury, they can cause itching, bleeding, pain, redness, or crust.


The main removal methods are:

  • Abrasion: the skin is scraped by using a tool that is called scraper.
  • Cryosurgery or cryopexy: it is applied onto hyperkeratoses, and then, they are left to fall, two weeks later.
  • Diathermopexy-Electrosurgery
  • Laser


Papillomas are benign skin tumors. In everyday language, they are also called “warts”, although they do not have any relationship with skin “moles” (skin nevi). They are small and round protuberances of the epidermis with or without a stem. Their surface is smooth or warty (like a cauliflower). They usually have the same color with the skin, although they can be brown or even dark brown. They are caused by the Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV), i.e. the viruses that cause warts and condyloma acuminata. However, they are not equally contagious. They can multiply and spread over in the same person after rubbing or injuring the area. The main responsible HPV viruses that cause papillomas are HPV 6 and HPV 11. In fact, they are low-risk viruses. The removal of papillomas is usually performed for cosmetic reasons.


The removal of papillomas with laser is the most modern and effective treatment of papillomas that results in the complete elimination of existing lesions.


Lipomas are usually benign tumors that develop in the subcutaneous tissue, and are caused from the rapid proliferation of cells in the fat tissue. The main causes of their occurrence are genetic or hereditary. Since the majority of lipomas are harmless, no treatment is required. However, if they have to be treated, the only option is to be surgically removed. This process is recommended in cases where lipomas cause pain or numbness, or are next to joints, making movement difficult, as a result.


The removal of lipomas is generally a simple operation and is performed by a small section that has the same diameter with the lipoma. Small lipomas can be removed with local anesthesia, while slightly bigger ones may require full anesthesia. However, regardless of the size of the lipoma, its removal should always be followed by biopsy.

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